Determining the role of intra-uterine contraceptive device, oral contraceptive pills and multiple sexual partners in altered vaginal flora leading to bacterial vaginosis, in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in central Maharashtra, India

  • Dr Amit A. Rangari Associate Professor, Department of Microbiology, Muzaffarnagar Medical College and Hospital , Muzaffarnagar ( U.P.) India.
  • Dr Ravi Vashisth Tutor,Department of Microbiology, Muzaffarnagar Medical College and Hospital , Muzaffarnagar ( U.P.) India,
Keywords: Bacterial vaginosis, Intra-Uterine Contraceptive Device, Multiple Sexual Partners, Oral Contraceptive Pills

Abstract

Background and Objective: Risk Factors of Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) includes multiple sex partners, sex without a condom, douching (washing the inside of vagina with a stream of water),poor hygiene, use of sexual toys or aids without proper cleaning, using an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception. The precise contribution of sexual transmission to the overall epidemiology of the condition remains controversial. This study was undertaken with a objective to find out the role and association of risk factors like Intra-uterine contraceptive device (IUCD), Oral contraceptive pills(OCP’s), Multiple Sexual Partners in alteration of normal vaginal flora leading to BV.

Material and Methods: High Vaginal Swabs of two hundred and fifty women of reproductive age (15 – 45 years) group who attended Gynaecology and Obstetrics OPD/IPD at tertiary care hospitals formed the study population. Detail patient history was noted. Nugent score elicited.

Results: Bacterial Vaginosis was more in women using IUCD i.e. 77% (17) cases as compared to women using OCP i.e. 21 % (3) cases and to women not using OCP/IUCD i.e. 12% (8) cases. Bacterial vaginosis was more in women with abnormal sexual behaviour, with multiple partners i.e. prevalence was 50% (4/8 cases) as compared to women with normal sexual behaviour, with one male partner i.e. prevalence was 31.2 % (75/240cases) and in virgins prevalence of BV was 0 %( 0/2cases).

Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis is associated with sexual activity like multiple sexual partner, douching, intrauterine-device and oral contraceptives.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Yen S, Shafer MA, Moncada J, Campbell CJ, Flinn SD, Boyer CB. Bacterial vaginosis in sexually experienced and non-sexually experienced young women entering the military. Obstet Gynecol .2003;102: 927–33.

2. Barbone F, Austin H, Louv WC, Alexander WJ. A follow-up study of methods of contraception, sexual activity, and rates of trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1990; 163:510- 4.

3. Koneman E.W., Ailen SD, Janda MW, Schrechenberger P.C, Winn Jr.W.C, Colour Atlas and textbook of Diagnostic microbiology 5th Ed.( J M Lippincort, Philadelphia ) The aerobic-gram positive bacilli, 1997; Ch-13: 645-708.

4. Holzman C, Leventhal JM, Qiu H, Jones NM, Wang J. Factors linked to bacterial vaginosis in non-pregnant women. Am J Public Health .2001; 91:1664-70.

5. Avonts D,Sercu M,Heyerick P,Vandermeeren I,Meheus A,Piot P. Incidence of uncomplicated genital infections in women using oral contraception or an intrauterine
device:a prospective study. Sex Transm Dis .1990;17 :23 –9.

6. Shoubnikova M,Hellberg D,Nilsson S,Mardh PA. Contraceptive use in women with bacterial vaginosis. Contraception. 1997; 55 :355 –8.

7. Schwebke JR,Richey CM,Weiss HL. Correlation of behaviors with microbiological changes in vaginal flora. J Infect Dis.1999;180 :1632 –6.

8. Bump RC,Buesching WJ. Bacterial vaginosis in virginal and sexually active adolescent females: evidence against exclusive sexual transmission. Am J Obstet Gynecol.1988;158 :935 –9.

9. Potter J. Should sexual partners of women with bacterial vaginosis receive treatment? Br J Gen Pract. 1999;49 :913 –18.

10. Mohanty S, Sood S, Kapil A, Mittal S. Interobserver variation in the interpretation of Nugent scoring method for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. Indian J Med Res .2010;131:88-91.

11. Hay PE, Morgan DJ, Ison CA, Bhide SA, Romney M, McKenzie P, et al. Hormonal contraception and risk of sexually transmitted disease acquisition: Results from a
prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001; 185:38– 5.

12. Calzolari E, Masciangelo R, Milite V, Verteramo R. Bacterial vaginosis and contraceptive methods. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2000;70:341–6.

13. Deborah B. Nelson and George Macones . Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnancy: Current Findings and Future Directions. Epidemiologic Reviews .2002; 24:102-8.

14. Warren D. High prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis in women with or at risk for HIV infection. Published in the Bulletin of Experimental
Treatments for AIDS .September 1996 issue, by the San Francisco AIDS Foundation.

15. Robert E. Gutman, Jeffrey F. Peipert, , MPH, Sherry Weitzen, PhD and Jeffrey Blume, PhD.Evaluation of Clinical Methods for Diagnosing Bacterial Vaginosis. Obstetrics & Gynecology .2005;105:551-6.

16. Larsson PG, Platz-Christensen JJ, Thejls H, Forsum U, Pahlson C. Incidence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease after First-trimester Legal Abortion in Women with Bacterial aginosis after Treatment with Metronidazole: a Double-blind, Randomized Study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1992;166:100-3.

17. Edward Demba , Linda Morison , Maarten Schim van der Loeff , Akum A Awasana , Euphemia Gooding , Robin Bailey , Philippe Mayaud and Beryl West .Bacterial vaginosis, vaginal flora patterns and vaginal hygiene practices in patients presenting with vaginal discharge syndrome in the Gambia, West Africa. BMC Infectious
Diseases. 2005, 5:12 .
18. Draper DL, Landers DV, Krohn MA, Hillier SL, Wiesenfeld HC, Heine RP. Levels of vaginal secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor are decreased in women with lower reproductive tract infections. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000; 183:1243–8.

19. Amy L Evans, Andrew J Scally, Sarah J Wellard and Janet D Wilson . Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in lesbians and heterosexual women in a community setting. Sexually Transmitted Infection.s 2007;83:470-5.

20. Hay PE. Recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Dermatol Clin .1998;16:769-73,xii-xiii.

21. Morris MC, Rogers PA, Kinghorn GR: Is bacterial vaginosis a sexually transmitted infection? Sex Transm Infect . 2001; 77:63-68.

22. Berger BJ, Kolton S, Zenilman JM, et al. Bacterial vaginosis in lesbians: a sexually transmitted disease. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:1402–5.

23. Merchant JS, Oh MK, Klerman LV. Douching a problem for adolescent girls and young women. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153:834–7.

24. F R Jones , G Miller , N Gadea , R Meza , S Leon , J Perez ,A G Lescano M, J Pajuelo , C F Caceres , J D Klausner ,T J Coates and the NIMH Collaborative HIV/STI Prevention Trial Group. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among young women in low-income populations of coastal Peru. International Journal of STD & AIDS. 2007; 18: 188–92.
Published
2015-09-30
How to Cite
1.
Dr Amit A. Rangari, Dr Ravi Vashisth. Determining the role of intra-uterine contraceptive device, oral contraceptive pills and multiple sexual partners in altered vaginal flora leading to bacterial vaginosis, in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in central Maharashtra, India. Biomed Rev: J Basic Appl Med Sci [Internet]. 2015Sep.30 [cited 2021May18];2(3):56-2. Available from: https://biomedicalreview.in/jbams/article/view/16
Section
Original Article