Pattern of medications prescribed for URI (upper respiratory tract infection) patients in medicine OPD of tertiary care teaching hospital, Ujjain
Objective: To obtain information on prescribing pattern of medications for URTI and comment on its effectiveness.
Materials and Method: This observational, non-interventional and prospective study was carried out on patients with URTI, >18 years of age and of either sex came to medicine OPD over a period of 3 months. All the relevant information related with prescribed medications were recorded in annexure. Data obtained from the study were entered in MS Excel 2007 and analyzed.
Result: Most common diagnosis was non specific URTI (50%), in total 96 prescriptions. Total 255 drugs were prescribed with average number of drugs per encounter were 2.65. Total percentages of encounters with antibiotic prescribed were 47.91%. Total numbers of FDCs prescribed were 10.38%, which include terbutaline+ambroxol (62.50%), amoxicillin+clavulanic acid (33.34%) and ampicillin+cloxacillin (4.16%). Total 47 antibiotics were prescribed, which were amoxicillin (28), amoxicillin+ clavulanic acid (9), azithromycin (9) and ampicillin+ cloxacillin (1). Out of total 255 drugs, antihistamines (27%, cetirizine) were prescribed for maximum number of time, followed by demulcents (20.24%, linctus syrup), antibiotics (19.02%), NSAIDS (18.21 %, paracetamol), bronchodilator (6.07%, terbutaline), mucolytic (6.07%, ambroxol) and antacids (3.23%, ranitidine).
Conclusion: Proper and effective prescribing pattern of medications, for any condition, is required to improve drug efficacy, decrease cost of therapy, adverse effects, drug-drug interaction and drug resistance.
care. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998 Feb;41(2):259-66.
2. Jain N, Lodha R, Kabra SK. Upper respiratory tract infections. Indian J Pediatr. 2001 Dec;68(12):1135-8.
3. Gonzales R, Steiner JF, Sande MA. Antibiotic prescribing for adults with colds, upper respiratory tract infections, and bronchitis by ambulatory care physicians.
JAMA. 1997 Sep 17;278(11):901-4.
4. Campbell H. Acute respiratory infection: a global challenge. Arch Dis Child. 1995 Oct;73(4):281-3.
5. Roy V, Malhotra R, Tayal V, Bansal A, Gupta KS. Fixed-dose combinations for cough and common cold in India: an assessment of availability and rationality.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Apr;25(2):258-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-8206.2010.00840.x.
6. Mainous AG 3rd, Hueston WJ, Davis MP, Pearson WS. Trends in antimicrobial prescribing for bronchitis and upper respiratory infections among adults and children. Am J Public Health. 2003 Nov;93(11):1910-4.
7. Huchon GJ, Gialdroni-Grassi G, Leophonte P, Manresa F, Schaberg T, Woodhead M. Initial antibiotics therapy for lower respiratory tract infection in the community: a European survey. Eur Respir J. 1996;9:1590–5. [PubMed]
8. Irvine DA. The general practitioner and upper respiratory tract infection in childhood. Fam Pract. 1986 Jun;3(2):126-31.
9. Pichichero ME. Culture and antigen detection tests for streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. Am Fam Physician. 1992 Jan;45(1):199-205.
10. Orr PH, Scherer K, Macdonald A, Moffatt ME. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of antibiotics for acute bronchitis: a critical review of the literature. J Fam
Pract. 1993 May;36(5):507-12.
11. Stone S, Gonzales R, Maselli J, Lowenstein SR. Antibiotics prescribing for patients with colds, upper respiratory infections, and bronchitis: A national study of
hospital – based emergency departments. Ann Emerg Med. 2000;36:320–7.
12. Gonzales R, Malone DC, Maselli JH, Sande MA. Excessive antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 15;33(6):757-
62. Epub 2001 Aug 21.
13. Martin RM. When to use a new drug. Aust Prescr 1998;21:67-68
14. Snow V, Mottur-Pilson C, Gonzales R; American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine; American Academy of Family Physicians; Centers for Disease Control; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Principles of appropriate antibiotic use for treatment of nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections in adults. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Mar 20;134(6):487-9.
15. Nandimath MK and Ahuja S. Drug prescribing pattern in upper respiratory tract infection in children aged 1–14 years. International Journal Of Pharma and Biosciences.2012;3(1):299-308
16. Tripathi KD. Beta-lactam antibiotics. Essentials of medical pharmacology. 7th edition, 2013; 51: 716-732.
17. Tripathi KD. Drugs for cough and bronchial asthma. Essentials of medical pharmacology. 7th edition, 2013; 16: 218-233.
18. Luks D, Anderson MR. Antihistamines and the common cold. A review and critique of the literature. J Gen Intern Med. 1996 Apr;11(4):240-4.
19. Pratter MR. Cough and the common cold: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2006 Jan;129(1 Suppl):72S-74S.
20. Gwaltney JM, Jr, Park J, Paul RA, Edelman DA, O'Connor RR, Turner RB. Randomized controlled trial of clemastine fumarate for treatment of experimental
rhinovirus colds. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Apr;22(4):656-62.
Copyright (c) 2015 Biomedical Review: Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Sciences (JBAMS)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.